From Delusion Towards Truth
Discourse Date: Fri, 26 February 1969 00:00:00 GMT
One expansion is external. The eyes look out; the hands feel the touch of external objects; the ears hear the outside sounds. But there is an expansion within also, which the eyes cannot see the ears cannot hear, and bands cannot touch. That is why, perhaps, what is within remains unknown and unfamiliar. Or perhaps it is because it is so close to us that we cannot see it.
What is at a distance can be seen; that which is close lacks perspective. To see, there must be some distance between us and the object. I can see you because there is a distance between us. I cannot see myself because there is no distance whatsoever between me and myself. The eye can behold all except itself. We who know all, are unable to Know ourselves. Al d in the quest for Truth, he who does not know himself, what else is he capable of knowing? And for he who knows himself, what else is left to know in the quest for Truth.
The first experience of Truth is within one's own self for that is the nearest point of access. We can know everyone externally but have no way to penetrate the internal being; and for this there is only one point of approach - one's own intrinsic self. Hence the first door to the temple of truth is the self within. But it is a strange enigma - life passes away and there is no trace of one's self, not even a faint suggestion of it! A whole lifetime is wasted without a hint Or the self!
There was a thinker by the name of Schopenhauer. One night he went to a public park for a walk.
It was about three in the morning and quite dark as yet. He was so engrossed in a problem that he did not know when he reached the garden, but the night-watchman saw him. He came with his stick and lantern to investigate. He could not see him clearly but he was sure that the man who had stolen into the garden at this time of the night, and was talking loudly to himself, was a madman. He thumped his stick and called out "Who are you? From where do you come and why have you come here?"
Schopenhauer laughed and said: "That is a difficult question you ask, my friend. All my life I have been asking myself this question: Who am l? From where do I come and why? And this is what you ask me too! Would that I had an answer to your question!" The gardener was convinced he was mad for he knew not from where he came or why - but do we know?
We too may laugh at Schopenhauer but our plight is just the same. We too do not know who we are, from where we come or why and to what purpose is this journey of life. We are not acquainted with a single essential factor of life. The nature of life is a closed book to us. The greatest wonder is that we are strangers to our own selves! Who am I? - and if I do not know this basic fact, how will I know the other aspects of Truth? To know one's self is the first unconditional step in the direction of Truth, without fulfilling which, this search is impossible.
People ask me all kinds of questions: "Does God exist? Is liberation a fact?"... and many more such queries are made but never one asks: "Who am I What am I?" The basic question of religion is not God but the being of the Self. The journey of Truth is inward and not outward. Whatever the search in the outside world, it does not lead to Truth. At the most, it reveals knowledge for day-to-day life.
Truth is known only by going within.
It happened that a city-beggar died. Deaths occur every day and the death of the beggar was nothing unusual. But his death made news! For thirty-five years this man had stood at the same spot and begged. In deference to his perseverance, the people of that town decided to bury him in the same spot. So they began to dig a pit and lo, to there amazement, they found a vast treasure buried right under the spot where the poor man stood and begged all his life! People derided his fate and condemned his foolishness. If he had dug the ground underneath instead of stretching out his hand for alms, he would have been the owner of this fortune! But it did not occur to anyone among them that perhaps he too was in the same plight! Deep within him too, there are vast treasures that he has never explored, and he has spent all his life in trying to gain them from outside.
Where we stand, where our Existence is, our very Being, is a priceless treasure-house. But we dig into scriptures, catch hold of the feet of gurus, get involved with words and doctrines and never search where iI actually is. No one looks within - one looks in the Koran, one looks in the Bible; one refers to Buddha or to Mahavira but never to where it exists in his own Being.
Whenever Truth is attained, it is attained from our own self. The attainments of Buddha or Mahavira or Christ, were individual attainment that had no outside source. Whenever Truth has been realized, it has been realized within the self; and because our search is always outside of the self, we spend ourselves in vain and fail to attain this treasure.
Therefore the first part of the second rule must be well understood: TRUTH IS WITHIN ONE'S OWN SELF. It therefore cannot be acquired by asking others. Truth is never dropped into a beggar's bowl, nor obtained on credit. Truth cannot also be learned from others, for all our knowledge is the knowledge of the outside - all our demands are sought outside. Truth is within us. It has neither to be studied, nor learned, nor demanded - it has to be dug out from within us. That ground where we stand has to be excavated and the treasures of Truth will reveal themselves.
Yet another story comes to my mind: It is said that soon after making the world, God made Man; but no sooner had He made him than God became worried! He called all the devatas and expressed His fears. He said: "Perhaps I have made a mistake in creating Man. He will not let me be in peace.
Every minute I find him at my door with some complaint or the other. What shall I do? Where shall I hide that he cannot find Me?"
The devatas made many suggestions. One said: "Hide in the peaks of the Gaurishankar!"
"You do not know," said God, "Soon Tensing and Hillary will be there - very soon."
"Another said: "Hide in the Pacific Ocean."
God said: "But very soon the scientists will probe the five mile depth of the Pacific."
Some others suggested the moon and the stars. God said: "You do not know. Man will acquire means to reach there too. All these places are vulnerable."
Then an old devata whispered in His ears: "Hide within Man's own being for he will never go there."
And he accepted his advice and withdrew into Man's heart; and it is a fact that Man never goes there. With the exception of his heart, Man explores all avenues but his steps never lead him to the realm within him. Perhaps we are completely oblivious of this path within; perhaps we do not know of the door within; perhaps we are unaware that within also there is something, and missing which, we fail to reach the Truth.
If someone asks: "Where is the temple of Truth? Where does Truth abide?" there is only one answer:
"That which is the 'Inner-ness' the 'Being-within', is the temple of Truth, its abode, its haven." We plant a seed in the ground; it sprouts into leaves and branches and becomes a big tree. Have you ever thought that this big tree, under which so many people rest... from where has it come? Where is its being? Is it in the little seed from which it started? Break the seed - there is no sign of the tree, but it is very much there, hidden in the being of the seed. This vast expanse of the world - this too is hidden in the seed of this "being within" and it grows and spreads all around from there. We too are hidden within ourselves, in the folds of the seed of our Being. From there, we appear, expand, then shrink and fade away.
All motion of life is from within to without. All things grow from within and spread without - the expansion is always outside. The reverse never happens: nothing goes within from without. And our attention is only drawn towards this - our being, our soul - when we are completely relieved of the outside world. When the eye is freed of the world outside, then only is it free to look within.
It is natural then, that as long as we project our vision on the objects outside, we are unable to see within. A wandering eye cannot delve within. We are habituated to see the outside, for we think that whatever is obtained is from the outside. All our attachments are outward oriented and hence this illusion. We can only start to look within when it becomes clear to us that no one has ever attained anything from outside. Those who have looked without have looked in vain; they have laboured in vain for they have reached nowhere.
Perhaps you know the story of Alexander - that when he died his hands were kept dangling outside of his bier. People began to wonder at this gross oversight on the part cf his ministers, for Alexander was a mighty emperor. But no one seemed to take note of this omission, though great kings and soldiers were taking turns to shoulder his bier! By evening things became clear. Before he died, Alexander had asked his friends and ministers to keep his hands outside the shroud, for he wished the world to know that even the mighty Alexander, the conqueror of the world, left empty-handed. A whole life time was spent in seeking and striving in the outside world all in vain.
We too will go empty-handed, for nothing is ever attained outside of ourselves. But we live always in the hope of attaining from the outside world. Life comes to a close, and hope changes Into despair.
Not a single man on the face of this earth has been able to claim that he achieved what he sought outside; and not a single one, who sought within, has ever said that he searched within but did not find.
Therefore I call religion the Ultimate Science. The meaning of science is, knowledge without exceptions. And though we may find exceptions in science - in the realm of religion, there has not been a single contradiction. All those who searched outside without a single exception, attained nothing; and all those who searched within, without exception, attained everything.
Therefore I wish to lay stress on the second rule - that the treasures of Truth are not outside of you. The truth of life is within. Once this becomes clearly evident, the journey within begins. But we are so outside-oriented - the vast expanse of the world without and all that it contains - That somewhere within us, we feel that everything is outside, and what could possibly be within?
The within seems so small and insignificant compared to the magnitude of the world that spreads beyond the horizon infinite! Within? There seems to be nothing It appears too small nd insignificant for our attention when viewed against the vast outside world. But the question is not of great or small, and besides, we have not travelled within to know what it is like. It is only when we go within that we realize that the inside is capable of holding infinite worlds within itself. It is limitless.
Go within and you shall know; delve within and you shall find. It is the experience that will prove the validity of the statement. Things outside have their boundary but the within is limitless. However, there is no other way of finding this out except by going into one's own self. There are things in life which can only be known by experience. If there is a pain in my arm, I cannot explain the quality of the pain, no matter how much I try; nor can I show to you by any means that "Here is the pain." Even if the arm is dissected, the pain cannot be drawn out for inspection.
The mind thinks incessantly, but on opening the skull, we shall find the brain and the nerves but no thoughts. Thoughts have never been seen, but if we insist on a concrete proof of their existence we shall have to state that there is nothing like thoughts. We all, however, know that thoughts are. We all know that love is, thought it is impossible to point it out physically anywhere in the heart, for this is no gross matter that can be presented to view. Thus, though these things like love and pain cannot be displayed, we still know for certain that they exist within us.
And this little flame of love, when it manifests itself in a person's life, is small no longer. When love awakens within, all the world becomes too small, too insignificant, before it. When agony rises within, it reduces the world outside to a grain of sand. When bliss awakens within, all joys of the world pale into insignificance.
The greatness and smallness of things can only be gauged when we experience that which is within.
And when the Truth within is realized, we experience its magnificence and magnitude and find that the vast expanse of the universe stands nowhere near it! We are totally ignorant of this experience for we have never tried to step in this direction.
We are like the blind man who could never know light no matter how hard he tried. All books on the subject of light would only cause confusion and false conceptions and never lead to the comprehension of light.
Ramakrishna used to tell a story: A blind man was once invited to dinner by his friends. There were various dishes prepared in his honour and he enjoyed them all thoroughly. Then he picked up a piece from the dish he liked best and asked to be told what it was. The host said it was a milk preparation. "What is milk?" asked the blind man.
"Have you seen a sea-gull? It is as white as the wings of a sea-gull," he explained.
"What is a sea-gull?" asked the blind man again. "And how do I know what its wings are; and what do you mean by white?"
The host was nonplussed. How could colour be explained to a blind man? But the blind man insisted - he had to know. Then one man came forward; he curved his hand and held it in front of the blind man and said: "Feel my hand. The sea-gull's head is as shapely and graceful.
The blind man felt his hand and his face lit up with delight! "Now I know what milk is like - a curved hand!" His friends were filled with despair, for now it was worse than before. He who knows not from within cannot be made to understand from without. If initially the man knew what colour was like, he could be made to understand from the outside - but then there is no need to make him understand!
This is the problem - the greatest problem in life: those who, know, need no explanation and there is no way of explaining to those who do not know. In trying to explain to the latter, more problems are created. WHAT IS KNOWN, IS ALWAYS KNOWN FROM WITHIN; AND WHAT IS IMPARTED, IS ALWAYS THE SUPERFICIAL KNOWLEDGE. Therefore, Truth cannot be expressed; it can only be known. To know, one should have some grasp, some acquaintance within; to be instructed means to be taught and explained by one who has this grasp.
Buddha was a guest in a village. The people there brought a blind man and requested Buddha to explain to him what light was, for this man refused to believe there was anything like light. He would only concede to its existence if he could touch it with his own hands. A blind man's knowledge of life is through the sense of touch. For him, for anything to exist, it should be felt by touch. And he is not wrong. That is the only way he knows; touch is the only proof of being. What he cannot feel, does not exist. The blind man laughed at their chagrin. "You cannot bring light, why do you then indulge in useless talk? There is no light," he said.
His friends had brought him to Buddha in the hope that he may be able to convince him. His demand was plain: "If your light exists I must be able to feel it, I must be able to taste it, hear it. And if it has any fragrance, I should be able to smell it." But all this is impossible with light - it can only be seen.
Then the blind man asks: "What is this seeing?" If he knew what it was to see, he would not be blind - and so he merely scoffs at others; and blames them for their mean tricks to prove him sightless. "I cannot see light nor can you - for there is no such thing as light," he asserts.
Buddha said: "It is futile to explain to him and I shall not commit that folly. What this man needs is a doctor and not a philosopher. He needs treatment for his eyes and not sermons for his soul. Get his eyes treated that he may see; then he will know. A thousand Buddhas will not be able to convince him."
The man was taken to an eye-specialist and was cured within six months. When Buddha passed that way again, the man went to him. "Light is," he said and fell at Buddha's feet.
"Where is it?" Buddha asked, "I want to touch it."
"It cannot be known by touch or taste."
"Let me smell it," Buddha insisted.
"Please do not laugh at me Sire! The past is over. Now I can see that it is."
"Why did you not believe your friends when they told you?" asked Buddha.
"The fault was not mine," said the man, "for how can a blind man understand light? And if I had taken their word for granted, I should still have been a blind man, and then I should never have known."
TRUTH IS TO BE KNOWN; IT CANNOT BE SUPPOSED. It can neither be inculcated nor communicated. There is no "learning" of Truth. Therefore there are no schools where truth is taught and people can learn. But there is a remedy - the eyes can be treated How? We shall discuss this tomorrow in the third rule.
For the present, in the course of the second rule, it is necessary to know that Truth can be known, but this knowing comes always from within. What we call knowledge always comes from outside, whereas 'knowing' always comes from within. We can obtain the knowledge of light from books but not the "knowing" of light; that has to come from within. Thus there is a difference between knowledge and knowing. Knowledge makes a man learned but not wise. Wisdom comes only by knowing - knowing oneself.
A man may read all the books on swimming. He may become an authority on all the information regarding swimming. He may even qualify to lecture on the subject - but do not ever push him into water, for whatever his qualifications, he cannot swim! To know swimming and to know about it, are two entirely different things. It is quite possible that one who knows swimming may be unable to explain it. He might say: "All I know is that I jump into water and - I swim! You too, will swim if you jump. If you insist on him clarifying his statement, one will say: "How is it possible to speak about it?
I can jump in the water and demonstrate. What discussion can there be in the matter of swimming?"
So also, we can know about truth but that is not knowing truth. There is a great number of such learned pundits who know about truth, but those who "know" truth are few and far between. And invariably these learned pundits become the enemies of the saint and the seer. This is natural, for the superficial knowledge of the pundit, holds no ground before the lofty knowledge of self experience.
One who "knows," knows there is no need to discourse; knowing is enough. Of what worth is the knowledge if one cannot swim?
There was a fakir, Mulla Nasrudin. He used to ply a boat to earn a living For two paise he would take a person across the river. Once a pundit got into his boat. As they were going along the pundit asked the Mulla: "Mulla, have you any knowledge of mathematics?"
"Mathematics?" asked the Mulla, "What does it look like?"
The pundit was shocked. "You do not know the science of numbers? Your life is spent in vain. Four annas worth of your life has gone to utter waste."
After some time he asked again. "Mulla, do you know astrology?"
"What in the name of heaven is that?" asked the Mulla.
The pundit shook his head in despair. "Mulla!" he said, "Eight annas worth of your life is wasted. If you do not know astrology, what else can you know?" And then a storm arose. A strong gale began to blow and the angry waves tossed the boat up and down. The Mulla asked; "Punditji, can you swim?"
"Not at all!" said the pundit. "Then sixteen annas worth of your life have gone completely to waste!"
And so saying the Mulla jumped into the water and swam ashore.
This "knowing about things," is not of much value in life. To stand before Truth holds some meaning, but to go about acquiring knowledge of Truth is meaningless. Whatever we know about the outside is always relative and never the truth about Truth, for it is not possible to know this way. Once we understand this, we can take out first step towards Truth. If someone comes and tells you that Truth is like this or God is like this - what can you possibly know except words? And there is nothing in words.
We do not make such mistakes in our day to day life: Take for instance the word "horse." We look it up in the dictionary and it says "it is an animal we ride on" - but we do not take hold of that word and ride on it! We know that only the horse in the stable can be used for riding. The dictionary horse is a mere word. We never take words on their face value in the ordinary course of things, but in spiritual matters, we have placed our full trust in them.
The word "God" is written in a book and w e bow before that book! It is just like riding the dictionary horse! If our feet happen to touch the holy book, we are filled with remorse. The feet have only touched words and not God. There is nothing in words. Words are mere lines drawn on blank paper.
Some even carry the holy scriptures on their head. No scriptures are religious, for they are nothing more than words. We do not take the word for the horse but we have no hesitation in taking the word for God. Then we worship these words, learn them by heart; and by repeating them again and again, we want it to be known that we know!
If a man learns the Geeta by heart, he is supposed to be learned. How is that possible? That, on the contrary, is the mark of a stupid person.
If someone rattles off the Geeta or the Koran, he is looked upon with great respect. What has he got? A mere recording of words. Take away these and he is left with nothing. He has u much God with him as one who repeats the word "horse." If a man has the word "horse" well planted in his mind, that is no reason to believe that the man has a horse! But if someone repeats the word "God"
several times, we readily belive that God is with him.
In the matter of truth also, we have readily accepted words. Nothing but words can come from the outside; truth comes from within. When this becomes absolutely clear, we are freed from the outside entanglements and ready for the journey within. But as long as we think that we stand to gain from the outside world, we cannot hope to traverse the path of truth.
Ouspensky was a marvellous thinker from Russia. He had written many books, one of which had brought special fame. It was said that there was no book in the world to equal his. Our famous book was written by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle - THE ORGANUM. This was the first book on truth. The second book on truth was written by Bacon and it was called NOVUM ORGANUM. The third and final book was Ouspensky's TERTIUM ORGANUM. It is said that these are the three most wonderful books in the world.
At the time Ouspensky went to visit Gurdjieff He was a famous man, Gurdjieff was a simple fakir Ouspensky said to him: "I want to put some questions to you." Gurdjieff handed him a blank piece of paper and said: "Before we talk, write down all that you know and all that you do not know. Then we shall talk on that which you do not know. That which you know already, needs no elucidation. It will only profit you if r talk or the matters you do not know."
That was a strange way to greet a famous man! However Ouspensky took the paper and went in a corner of the room He meant to make a long list. But when he started to write, he found himself in a strange predicament! He asked himself: "Do I know God?" The answer came from within him: "I know about God but T do not know God at all!"
"Do I know the soul?"
"I know about the soul but that is all."
For almost an hour he grappled with himself but could not bring himself to write anything. He went up to Gurdjieff and handing the blank paper to him said: "Forgive me, Sir. I have been under an illusion. I thought I knew, but the way you spoke and the look in your eyes make this seemingly simple question impossible to answer. I cannot dare to get away from you with what I thought I 'knew'."
"How did you then write all those famous books?" asked Gurdjieff "They do not matter now. I was under the spell of mv so-called learning. When you spoke to me, for the first time the question stood so glaringly before me that I am overwhelmed with my ignorance!
Now I feel I know nothing! I have revelled enough in words and taken them for knowledge hut as far as knowing is concerned, my attainment is zero."
"In that case," said Gurdjieff; "you are qualified to know, for you have understood the very basic fact that you know nothing."
This is the first step to knowledge: to know that you know nothing. This act of concession requires great courage. To acknowledge to oneself that "I do not know," is a great feat for at once the ego within, rebels. "Preposterous!" it exclaims. "I have the Geeta by heart, I have read the Upanishads, I go to the temple every day and take part in all religious talks - how can I not know? Swords are unsheathed to settle questions of knowledge and custody is claimed of that which we do not know; and if words have failed to disclose Truth so far, they will always do so.
Nothing will be gained by learning words even if we try for a number of lives. Such knowledge merely creates an illusion of knowing. Then how are we to know? What is the path of knowledge? Study and contemplation were considered methods so far. We were always told that by reading books and discussing shastras and listening to the learned, knowledge was gained. Nothing could be more false than this, for nothing is gained on matter how much you read or hear.
The illusion of knowledge created by such learning has proved more dangerous than ignorance itself, for the ignorant man is at least conscious of his ignorance and may perhaps try to find out, whereas this is impossible under the illusion of knowing. I or a knowledgeable man, there is nothing for her to know.
This world suffers not so much because of ignorance as pseudo-knowledge. This is why we are so far away from Truth.
When Socrates became old, he sent word round to the whole of Athens exhorting the Athenians not to call him a wise man! "When I was young, I was under the illusion that I knew. As my understanding increased," he said... and his words are worth nothing. He says: "As my understanding increased, my knowledge evaporated. Now that my understanding is complete, I am thoroughly convinced that no man is more ignorant than I am."
The people of Athens were filled with joy, for the wise in Athens knew that Socrates had entered the temple of Truth. When the ignorant questioned: "But he proclaims his ignorance and you say he has realized Truth?" They replied: "Only those can enter the temple of Truth whose illusion of knowledge is broken; those whose nature becomes so guileless that with the innocence of a child they declare they know nothing! For them the doors of Truth are always open."
The one to whom his ignorance becomes evident, starts to look inwards. Relieved of the burden of outside knowledge, man turns his gaze within. No one turns inwards so long as he expects to gain from without; from scriptures etc., for till then the "turning in" does not occur. Hence the second rule demands complete freedom from the tangle of words. This can only be if we are convinced that words are false and Truth is never revealed through them. To be free from words is to travel within.
Outside there are words and within there is silence. Words have no room there.
So this is the second rule: TO START ON THE QUEST OF TRUTH, BE RID OF ALL PSEUDO- KNOWLEDGE. Be rid of the knowledge that is cultivated, that is borrowed, so that, that knowledge can be investigated which is never borrowed, never obtained from others and which is ever-present within. That knowledge is true which is written in the self and not in the books; which has not to be begged for, but rises from within and spreads on all life. Such knowledge cannot be snatched away for it comes from the self within. Knowledge attained from others is always uncertain and dubious and can never be relied upon; but the knowledge that arises within is irreproachable and beyond the shadow of doubt.
In the course of his search for truth, Vivekanand once approached Maharishi Devendranath. It was a dark night and the Maharishi stayed in a boat on the Ganges. Vivekanand crossed the river and reached the boat. He pushed the door that was already open and found the Maharishi in meditation.
He caught him by his neck and shook him. The Maharishi opened his eyes and was startled to see a youth, drenched from top to toe, standing before him. "Tell me if God is!" he demanded of the Rishi.
Many had asked the question before but never this way! What was this way of asking about God, at this untimely hour and in this drenched condition! The Maharishi was unnerved. He hesitated a little, then said, "Sit down son, calm yourself and then we shall talk."
"There is nothing to say now. Your hesitation has given the answer." So saying, Vivekananda leapt back into the water and was gone. In vain the Maharishi called out to him - but he did not return.
The same youth, after two months, approached Ramakrishna and asked him in the same manner:
"Does God exist?"
"There is nothing except God. Do you want to know? If so, say so," came the reply. Do not worry whether God is or is not. Whether you want to know is all that matters, was the meaning behind his words.
It was now Vivekananda's turn to be taken aback! He writes in his diary: "Till then I had taken my mentors by surprise. It had never occurred to me whether I was ready to search for God; but with this man, it was different. Those whom I had asked so far had only words and so were not sure of themselves. Ramakrishna had experience and not words."
Where there is experience, there is no hesitation, and no doubt. But such knowledge comes always from within; it liberates and is indubious. But the within must be emptied of all spurious knowledge before the eye can turn inwards; for he who clutches stones and fills his treasure-chest with rubble can never hope to gather precious gems.
Therefore, it is incumbent upon him to know that what he has amassed and held onto so far is worthless, and needs to be thrown away to make space for the genuine treasure. What is important is to be able to discern the rubble and rock so that the diamonds may be known. It is very necessary to know what is nor knowledge in the quest for knowledge. Whatever is inculcated from without is not knowledge; what is imparted through words is not knowledge, what has come from others is not knowledge. Once this is clearly understood - that such knowledge is false - then the search for that knowledge which is true knowledge can beg n.
Therefore I state once again in the course of this second rule: Be free of knowledge to attain real knowledge. Be rid of knowledge that "the knowledge" can be born. As you go home, ask yourself on the way: "Whatever knowledge I have, is it my own." Do I "know" it? If I do not "know" it, it is of no use; it is no knowledge; it is nothing more than stale and borrowed information."
Man is a strange creature: he readily believes rumours - not only about others but about truth also!
You have to ask yourself: "Do I really know what I know?" It is a harsh question to ask and to be asked without bias, for it hurts the ego The question will snatch away the illusion of knowledge and erudition. One by one, the bricks will fall. Test your knowledge on this one touchstone and know that that which you do not "know" is not knowledge. That which I do not know is no knowledge for me even if the whole world knows it.
Once this is clear, we can proceed to the third rule but not before that. We have to step onwards - from the first to the second. We have to let go of the first lower rung in order to climb the next step of the ladder. It is only when old grounds are traversed and left behind that new grounds can be explored. If we refuse to leave the old ground, no amount of instructions will help. LET THE KNOWLEDGE THAT HAS BEEN LEARNT GO, SO THAT THE UNLEARNED KNOWLEDGE MAY FIND SPACE TO EMERGE.
On the third rule, we shall talk tomorrow.