Meditation is a very complex phenomenon. It looks simple; it is not. It is a science, a complete science in itself. It is bound to be, because meditation means a deep mutation of your total being.
The whole being has to be transformed, so it is obviously going to be a complex affair.
Man is a complexity; the mutation is bound to be also a complex thing. Some basic elements must be understood. One: your body - your body must be in a deep cooperation; otherwise, meditation will be unnecessarily difficult. Your body must be in such a state that it helps, not hinders. As it is ordinarily, it is a deep hindrance. Your body goes on hindering you; it becomes an obstacle, and if you want to transform, you must purify the body first. And by purifying the body many things are meant. First, you must not be identified with it; that is the first and the most basic impurity.
One must not be identified with one's body. One must remain in a beyondness, in a transcendence.
Neither one should think, "I am the body," nor one should think, "I am in the body." Rather, one should remain in a constant remembering: "I am something beyond the body - neither one with it, nor IN it, nor within it, but beyond." Constant remembrance that "I am beyond my body" gives a different dimension to your whole being. Try it, constantly! You are moving, walking, sleeping - whatsoever the state - remember constantly that you are as if something is hovering over the body, beyond the body. Not in it, not within it, not one with it, just something beyond, moving with the body, living with the body, enveloping the body.
Think of it this way. Ordinarily we think, "I am enveloped by the body." That's why the word "body" - body means that in which we are embodied. We are within and the body is without: "Body is a casket, a house, and I am in it. Change the thing totally, upside down. Let the body be in and YOU be out - beyond the body, hovering, enveloping.
If you can change this attitude from yourself being within, to yourself being beyond, you will feel a sudden change: your body will become light; all the heaviness will be gone and your body will become something with wings. You will feel that now you can fly; you can go now, any moment, beyond the forces of gravitation. Try it! From this very moment, begin to think that the body is within, and you are without, encompassing it. And then the body is purified. Why? - because identity becomes impossible. You can identify only with something which is greater than you. No one identifies himself with something which is lesser; identification is always with the greater. You are within a very small point and the body is big and great and everything; that's why you begin to be identified. Let yourself be the greater one, and let the body be just a minor thing. You will never be identified with it.
Secondly, if you are within, you will have limits; if you are without, you become unlimited. If I am within my body, then I am encircled by my body, I have a finitude, a limitation. If I am beyond my body, then there is no limitation; then I am not only beyond my body, I am beyond all. Then there is no ending to it - then suns will rise in me, stars will move in me, creations will come in me and go out and will cease - then I become the whole universe. Body becomes the center - just a minor center, an atomic existence - and I become the whole universe, encompassing it.
Heidegger has used this word "encompassing." It is beautiful - encompassing. Feel it, try it, imagine it, and you will come to a new understanding of your own being. When I say imagine it, I say it consideredly. Really, this feeling that "I am the body" is just an imagination. This feeling that "I am IN the body" is also just an imagination. Because the society has taught you, this imagination has become unconscious.
For example, I would like to tell you: Many cultures, in different ages, different religions, different thinkings, have considered the body center to be in different places. For example, as far as this contemporary world is concerned, more or less everyone thinks that he is somewhere in the head - not in the legs, not in the hands, not in the belly. If someone insists and asks you, "Where are you? Point it out!" Then you will begin to feel something in the head; you are in the head. But ask a Japanese and he will say that he is in the belly, not in the head - because the whole of Japanese culture has always thought that the spirit lives in the belly. So if you think with your head, the Japanese think with their belly - they say, "We think with our belly." They say, "The belly must be strong. The belly is the center." But there have been other cultures - some cultures think that the heart is the center. Then if that culture has been imposed on you, you begin to think that the heart is the center. Really, these are just imaginative identifications.
In a sense, the spirit is nowhere in the body; it encompasses it. Or, it is everywhere in the body and everywhere outside of the body. If any center is maintained in your imagination, the body becomes impurified, burdened with the center - tense, diseased. Let there be no center in the body; let yourself be outside, just encompassing the body. And then the body becomes fresh, young, flowing, liquid, an energy - without any burdened feeling upon it. Then the body cooperates. This light feeling of the body becomes a basic source of help for meditation.
Not only the body, but your heart also must be prepared for meditation to flower in it. Unprepared, much energy is wasted unnecessarily. Prepare the heart.
This sutra says you can prepare the heart by throwing all the impurities out of it. But instead we go on accumulating. You can forget if someone has helped you, but you cannot forget if someone has harmed you. You can forget something which has been a bliss, but you cannot forget something which has been a suffering. We go on accumulating negatives; these negatives become the impurities for the heart. Everyone goes on accumulating negatives. If someone is friendly to you for years, and for a single moment is not friendly, then all that friendship will go down and that moment of unfriendliness will become the most significant thing - and you will remember it.
This attitude must be changed. One must go on accumulating positives and throwing out negatives; then the heart becomes purified. Go on accumulating positives. Never accumulate anything negative; it is not going to help you, it is going to destroy you.
Someone has been angry to you: don't remember it. What to do? - one has to remember something - find something positive. Someone is angry - why be so much concerned with the anger? Why not be concerned with the PHENOMENON of anger? There are some people who are beautiful only when they are angry - why not look at the beauty of it? Even if they are not beautiful, everyone when he is angry, is vital. Why not look at the vitality, the energy, the aliveness, the radiance of it?
Why be so much concerned with anger? Why not be concerned with the phenomenon? Something is happening - a beautiful phenomenon in itself, a very radiant phenomenon - energy expressing, alive. Why not look at it in that way? Why not look - when someone is angry - why not look at yourself? What happens to YOU when someone is angry? If you are also angry then he has won, you are defeated. Why not be victorious? Why not be indifferent? Look at the anger, look at it as if you are looking at a psychodrama - someone is playing a role and you are just a witness. Why not be a witness? And then you will feel grateful to the person who has been angry with you. If you can be a witness when someone is angry, you will feel grateful, because he has given you a situation in which you could know your own mastery.
Whenever someone was with Gurdjieff, he would create many situations. He would create unnecessary situations in which someone would become angry, so angry that everyone would feel that he was going to explode. And then suddenly Gurdjieff would tell him, "NOW BE AWARE! Now be a witness to it!" - and everyone would begin to be a witness. Anger becomes a situation, an object to be studied, and that person himself who is angry feels a sudden change, because it has become a study project. Now it is not anger, it has become a drama. So why not look at a thing from the positive, with something to learn from it? Why go on accumulating the negative? This is just a habit - it is not inevitable; it is not.
Buddha could send his disciples to the burning places, to cemeteries to look at dead bodies, to contemplate death, to meditate on death: The body is burning - the dead body is there - it is burning.
And Buddha would send his disciples there, to sit there and meditate on death. And meditating on death, the disciple would soon come to realize a different quality of life which never dies. Then he would come dancing, singing, to Buddha - from the dead body burning in the cemetery, he would come running, dancing - why? he should come sad, sorrowful, depressed, dead himself in a way.
But he has not accumulated the negative even from a dead body. He has accumulated something positive. He has been meditating on death, and if you meditate on death you become more and more aware of life. He comes running, dancing, grateful - grateful to Buddha, grateful to the dead man also.
Why go on accumulating the negative? - we go on; that's just a wrong habit. Change it! Always look at the positive, and soon you heart will be purified. Negativities are the diseases of the heart. It begins to feel sore, and then the whole of life will become just a suffering, because you live through your own heart. You go on accumulating negatives; then you have to live through this negativity; then everything becomes just a suffering, a long suffering - meaningless, purposeless, leading to nowhere.
This is suicidal. A negative attitude is suicidal. Purify the heart by looking at the positive. Find everywhere something which can become a cherished accumulation in the heart. When I say, now remember, remember the face which was angry at you in the past - remember the face. Feel the beauty of it, and the whole thing suddenly changes. Someone was abusing you... remember the past, and feel when someone abuses; feel the energy, feel the aliveness, and everything changes - it is up to you.
The body must be purified by encompassing it. The heart must be purified by a positive foundation given to it, negatives denied. Be negative only to negatives, and then, then you can meditate.
On what is one to meditate? - the untainted, the pure, the clear, and the griefless.
Meditate on the untainted.
What is untainted? - only the sky, space is untainted. Meditate on space, pure space, and you will become like it. Whatsoever one meditates on one becomes.
Meditate on purity.
Everyone has felt somewhere a glimpse of purity... a flower, a virgin - anywhere. Many moments are there when one begins to feel purity. Meditate on purity... a flower, a virgin - anything. Meditate on purity and you will become pure. Whatsoever one meditates on one becomes.
The clear, the transparent - meditate on any transparency. A silent lake - you can look to the very bottom, everything clear; a glass window - so pure, so clear that even you don't see the glass, that the glass is there. Meditate on any transparency, and you will become transparent, you will become clear.
The griefless - meditate on the griefless... anything which is blissful, which is a beauty-tude. We go on meditating on grief; we go on meditating on grief continually. We go on meditating on suffering, then we become part of it. Meditation is the way to make oneself just like the object of the meditation.
Remember a Buddha, a griefless one. Remember a Krishna, a joyous one. Remember anything - a Chaitanya dancing, a Meera singing. Remember anything - a cloud passing in the sky, dancing, rays of the sun coming to you. Remember anything which is blissful to you. Meditate on it and you will become blissful. Don't continue to meditate on things which you would not like to be like. We go on meditating on wrong things.
Everyone is a meditator, remember. It is NOT that there are a few people who meditate. Everyone meditates, no one can be without meditation. So what is the difference between a meditator and a non-meditator? The difference is not of meditation, the difference is only of objects. The difference is only of objects. Someone is meditating on sex - he becomes sexual. Someone is meditating on anger - he becomes angry. Someone meditating on some sad event, he becomes sad. Everyone is meditating.
Only Mahavira has divided meditation into four types. Really, this is strange because Mahavira alone has divided meditation into four parts. Many divisions are there, but nothing like Mahavira's, because Mahavira divides two such things, two such types which no one would like to call meditation. The first he calls RAUDRADHYAN - anger meditation. The second he calls ARTADHYAN - suffering meditation. No one has named these. The third he calls DHARMADHYAN, and the fourth he calls SHUKLADHYAN. Dharmadhyan - religious meditation; and shukladhyan - the purest meditation.
But he calls all four meditation. The first two, anger meditation and suffering meditation - no one will call these meditation.
If someone is angry, have you felt that he is in a deep meditation? Everything has gone out of his mind, only one point of anger remains. He is focused, the whole world has dropped. Really, when someone is in anger, he is not in this world at all. He is not looking at you, he is not looking at anything; he is not even aware that the whole world exists - only anger exists.
When someone is suffering, deeply suffering - some loved one has died - then he is not aware of anything, only of his own suffering. His suffering encompasses him. Only now the suffering is there, everything has become just illusory. He is in a deep meditation, of course, of the wrong type.
Everyone meditates. The difference is: someone meditates on wrong objects, and someone meditates on right objects. Meditate on some blissful moment. Meditate on something you would like to become like, then meditation becomes a mutation. First, wrong objects are to be dropped, then ultimately right objects are also to be dropped.
When there is no object, and only a meditative consciousness remains, you have achieved the ultimate.